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5.3. Социализм и солидаризм

 

 

См. также:
Глава «Солидаризм и социализм» работы И. Вощинина «Солидаризм. Рождение идеи».

С определенными оговорками, разумеется, но можно признать, что в XIX столетии социализм был наиболее прогрессивным течением общественной мысли. Во всяком случае, во второй половине XIX века после того, как явно стали обнаруживаться теневые стороны либерализма — бесконтрольное и хищническое злоупотребление капиталом — только социализм со всей решительностью проповедовал освобождение от нужды и от бесправия беднейших классов, только социализм выступал поборником идеи социальной справедливости (которую либерализм просто «не отрицал»). И главная притягательная сила социализма была в том, что он апеллировал к высшим побуждениям человеческой души, к общественной совести, к альтруизму, к жажде утверждения правды не земле. Психологически социализм имеет идеалистические, даже религиозные корни, он одушевлен жаждой утверждения правды.

И, в то же время, философски, социализм равнодушен и даже враждебен религии. В плане идеологическом социализм основался на позитивистической и, в своих наиболее влиятельных формах, на открыто материалистической философии. Этот союз социализма с материализмом и атеизмом оказался роковым для исторических судеб учения, а тем самым и для исторических судеб человечества. Возникнув из духовной жажды, социализм отрицал в то же время духовное начало в человеке. Питаясь внутренне неудовлетворенным религиозным стремлением, он кончил открытым преследованием религии. Воплощение же социализма в политической практике дало, вместо приближения к земному рая, земной ад. Примеры гитлеровской Германии (которая была все же национал-социалистической) и, отнюдь не меньше СССР (где по утверждению его властителей социализм уже построен), в этом отношении более чем показательны. Социалистические эксперименты уже обошлись человечеству в десятки миллионов жизней. Вместо чаемого освобождения социализм принес людям горчайшее бремя диктатуры, активную несвободу, концлагеря и всевидящее око «органов безопасности»; вместо мира — обострение классовой и национальной ненависти.

Многие читатели, может быть, упрекнут нас здесь в демагогии, Да, ХХ век, не назовешь, пожалуй, веком всеобщего благоденствия, но виноват ли в этом социализм? Разве не падает в национал-социализме главное ударение на национализм, на коллективную манию величия? И не правы ли демократические социалисты, проклявшие сталинский «построенный в основном» социализм, как измену социалистической идее, как искажение, а не воплощение в жизнь учения Маркса? Демократы — тоже социалисты; и тем не менее, разве можно сравнить демократический социализм современной Швеции с государственным капитализмом и тоталитарной диктатурой в СССР? Не лежат ли корни зла в извращении социализма, а не в его подлинной сущности?

Проблема стоит по-существу так: возможен ли социализм не тоталитарного типа, социализм с человеческим лицом, не жертвующий свободой личности? И не как благопожелание только, а как целостное учение, способное воплотиться в социально-политический строй? Ответить на этот вопрос нелегко, особенно принимая во внимание, что всякий односложный, утвердительный или отрицательный ответ был бы куплен ценой произвольного упрощения проблемы. Ведь в поисках «демократического социализма» заключается главный смысл исканий нового общественного идеала. Попытаемся, однако, взвесить хоть некоторые «за» и «против».

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